Architectural Theories of Design: A Comprehensive Guide by George Salvan
- Who is George Salvan and why is his book important? - What are the main topics covered in his book? H2: Economic Factors in Design - How to balance cost and quality in architecture - How to use chromatic energy to enhance design - How to apply principles of composition such as unity, balance, rhythm, etc. H2: Conceptualization Techniques of Design - How to use sketches, diagrams, models, etc. to develop design ideas - How to use functional grouping and zoning to organize spaces - How to use space articulation to create variety and interest H2: Response to Context - How to consider the site, climate, culture, history, etc. in design - How to use environmental concepts and the interior to create comfort and harmony - How to design for handicapped users and special needs H2: Construction Methods and Structures - How to choose appropriate materials, systems, and techniques for construction - How to use structural concepts such as load, span, stability, etc. in design - How to integrate mechanical, electrical, plumbing, etc. services in design H2: Human Factors in Design - How to design for human scale, proportion, ergonomics, etc. - How to use psychological concepts such as perception, cognition, emotion, etc. in design - How to use aesthetic concepts such as form, color, texture, light, etc. in design H1: Conclusion - Summarize the main points of the article - Emphasize the importance of architectural theories of design for architects and designers - Provide some recommendations for further reading or learning Table 2: Article with HTML formatting Introduction
Architectural theories of design are the principles and guidelines that inform the process of creating buildings and spaces. They help architects and designers to understand the problem, generate ideas, evaluate alternatives, and communicate solutions. Architectural theories of design are based on various sources of knowledge such as science, art, philosophy, psychology, sociology, history, culture, etc.
Architectural Theories Of Design George S. 11
One of the most comprehensive and influential books on architectural theories of design is written by George Salvan. He is a Filipino architect, educator, author, inventor, and builder. He graduated from St. Louis University in Baguio City in 1963 as the first and lone graduate of architecture north of Manila. He taught at the same university from 1965 to 1969 and then at the Baguio Colleges Foundation (now University of the Cordilleras) from 1980 to 1988. He also served as the president of the United Architects of the Philippines Baguio Chapter in 1982 and 1983 and as the national director for Regional District I in 1987. He was conferred the title of "Fellow" by the United Architects of the Philippines College of Fellows in 1988.
His book "Architectural Theories of Design" was first published in 1999 by Goodwill Trading Co., Inc. It has 500 pages and covers a wide range of topics related to architectural design. It is divided into six chapters: Economic Factors in Design; Conceptualization Techniques of Design; Response to Context; Construction Methods and Structures; Human Factors in Design; and Architectural Dictums. The book is intended for students, teachers, practitioners, and enthusiasts of architecture who want to learn more about the theory and practice of architectural design.
Economic Factors in Design
One of the most important factors that influence architectural design is economics. Economics is the study of how people allocate scarce resources to satisfy their needs and wants. In architecture, economics deals with how architects balance cost and quality in their projects. Cost refers to the amount of money required to plan, design, construct, operate, maintain, and dispose of a building. Quality refers to the degree of excellence, functionality, durability, and beauty of a building. Architects have to consider both cost and quality in their design decisions to achieve the best value for their clients and society.
One of the ways that architects can enhance the quality of their design without increasing the cost is by using chromatic energy. Chromatic energy is the visual impact of colors on the human eye and mind. Colors can affect the mood, emotion, perception, and behavior of people in a space. Architects can use colors to create contrast, harmony, emphasis, hierarchy, etc. in their design. For example, warm colors such as red, orange, and yellow can create a sense of excitement, activity, and warmth, while cool colors such as blue, green, and purple can create a sense of calmness, relaxation, and coolness. Architects can also use colors to reinforce the function, identity, and character of a space. For example, green can be used to signify nature, health, and sustainability, while purple can be used to signify royalty, luxury, and spirituality.
Another way that architects can improve the quality of their design is by applying principles of composition. Composition is the arrangement of elements in a space to create a coherent and harmonious whole. Principles of composition are the rules or guidelines that help architects to organize the elements in a space. Some of the common principles of composition are unity, balance, rhythm, proportion, scale, emphasis, etc. Unity is the sense of oneness or wholeness in a design. Balance is the sense of equilibrium or stability in a design. Rhythm is the sense of movement or flow in a design. Proportion is the relationship of size or quantity among the elements in a design. Scale is the relationship of size or quantity between the elements and the human body or the context in a design. Emphasis is the sense of focus or importance in a design.
Conceptualization Techniques of Design
Another factor that affects architectural design is conceptualization. Conceptualization is the process of developing an idea or concept for a design problem. It involves defining the problem, gathering information, generating alternatives, and selecting a solution. Conceptualization requires creativity, imagination, logic, and analysis from architects and designers. There are various techniques that architects and designers can use to conceptualize their design ideas such as sketches, diagrams, models, etc.
Sketches are quick and rough drawings that capture the essence or main features of a design idea. Sketches are useful for exploring different possibilities, communicating ideas to others, and recording thoughts for future reference. Sketches can be done by hand or by computer using various tools such as pencils, pens, markers, brushes, etc. Sketches can be done in different styles such as realistic, abstract, schematic, etc.
Diagrams are simplified representations that show the structure or relationship of elements in a design idea. Diagrams are useful for analyzing complex problems, organizing information, and explaining concepts to others. Diagrams can be done by hand or by computer using various tools such as lines, shapes, symbols, colors, etc. Diagrams can be done in different types such as bubble diagrams, flowcharts, Venn diagrams, etc.
Models are three-dimensional representations that show the form or appearance of elements in a design idea. Models are useful for testing feasibility, evaluating aesthetics, and presenting solutions to others. Models can be done by hand or by computer using various materials such as paper, cardboard, clay, wood, metal, plastic, etc. Models can be done in different scales such as full-scale, half-scale, quarter-scale, etc.
Functional Grouping and Zoning
One of the aspects that architects and designers have to consider when conceptualizing their design ideas is functional grouping and zoning. Functional grouping is the process of grouping together elements that have similar or related functions in a space. Functional zoning is the process of assigning different functions to different areas or zones in a space. Functional grouping and zoning help architects and designers to organize spaces efficiently, effectively, and logically.
For example, in a residential building, the functional groups could be living, dining, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom, etc. The functional zones could be public, private, service, etc. The living, dining, and kitchen could be grouped together in the public zone as they are used for socializing and entertaining guests. The bedroom and bathroom could be grouped together in the private zone as they are used for resting and personal hygiene. The service zone could include areas such as laundry, storage, garage, etc. that are used for supporting activities.
Another aspect that architects and designers have to consider when conceptualizing their design ideas is space articulation in architecture. Space articulation is the method of styling the joints in the formal elements of architectural design. It helps to create a coherent and harmonious whole by emphasizing each part separately or by creating smooth transitions between them. Space articulation can also affect the mood, perception, and function of a space by using different shapes, sizes, colors, textures, etc. Some examples of space articulation in architecture are: - The Sydney Opera House, which uses a combination of distinct and continuous articulation to create a dynamic and iconic structure. The "wings" of the opera house stand out from the whole, while the ribs under them are fused by a smooth surface. The smooth surface also creates other symbolic forms on the roof that contrast with the sky. - The Casa da Música in Portugal, which uses continuity and fusion to create a sensual and exuberant building. The building has a simple geometric shape that is wrapped by a continuous skin of glass and concrete. The skin creates smooth curves and angles that reflect light and shadow. The interior spaces are also fluid and organic, creating a contrast with the exterior form. - The Spatial Organization in Architecture, which uses different types of spatial relationships and organizational methods to create patterns and structures in space. Spatial relationships include space within a space, interlocking spaces, adjacent spaces, and spaces linked by a common space. Organizational methods include centralized, linear, radial, clustered, and grid organizations. These concepts help architects and designers to organize spaces efficiently, effectively, and logically. Response to Context
Another factor that influences architectural design is context. Context is the set of physical, social, cultural, historical, environmental, etc. factors that surround a design problem or solution. Context helps architects and designers to understand the needs, preferences, values, and expectations of the users and stakeholders of a project. Context also helps architects and designers to adapt their design solutions to the site, climate, culture, history, etc. of a project.
One of the ways that architects and designers can respond to context is by using environmental concepts and the interior. Environmental concepts are the principles and strategies that help architects and designers to create comfortable, healthy, sustainable, and resilient buildings and spaces. They include aspects such as natural ventilation, daylighting, passive heating and cooling, renewable energy sources, water conservation, waste management, etc. The interior is the part of a building or space that is enclosed by walls, floors, ceilings, doors, windows, and openings. Environmental concepts and the interior help architects and designers to create comfort and harmony in their buildings and spaces by considering aspects such as natural ventilation, daylighting, passive heating and cooling, renewable energy sources, water conservation, waste management, etc. Some examples of environmental concepts and the interior in architecture are: - The Magazzino Italian Art in New York, which uses natural ventilation and daylighting to create a comfortable and sustainable gallery space. The building has a series of operable skylights that allow fresh air and natural light to enter the interior. The skylights also have sensors that adjust the opening according to the temperature and humidity levels. The interior walls are painted white to reflect light and create a bright and spacious atmosphere. - The Sandringham Primary School in London, which uses passive heating and cooling to create a healthy and energy-efficient learning environment. The building has a timber frame that is insulated with straw bales and clad with wood panels. The straw bales provide thermal mass and insulation, while the wood panels provide a natural and durable finish. The building also has large windows that face south to capture solar heat in winter and are shaded by overhangs in summer. The windows can be opened to allow cross ventilation and natural cooling. - The Bentway in Toronto, which uses renewable energy sources and water conservation to create a resilient and adaptive public space. The project transforms an unused space under an expressway into a linear park that connects different neighborhoods and offers various activities and programs. The project uses solar panels to generate electricity for lighting and events, rain barrels to collect water for irrigation and ice-making, and permeable paving to reduce stormwater runoff. Construction Methods and Structures
Another factor that influences architectural design is construction. Construction is the process of assembling materials, systems, and techniques to create a building or a space. Construction affects the form, function, durability, and safety of a building or a space. Architects and designers have to choose appropriate materials, systems, and techniques for their design solutions based on various criteria such as cost, availability, performance, aesthetics, etc.
One of the ways that architects and designers can choose appropriate construction methods and structures is by using structural concepts. Structural concepts are the principles and strategies that help architects and designers to create stable, efficient, and expressive buildings and spaces. They include aspects such as load, span, stability, strength, stiffness, etc. Load is the force or weight that acts on a structure. Span is the distance between two supports of a structure. Stability is the ability of a structure to resist overturning or collapsing. Strength is the ability of a material or a structure to resist breaking or deforming under load. Stiffness is the ability of a material or a structure to resist bending or deflecting under load.
Some examples of structural concepts in architecture are: - The Eiffel Tower in Paris, which uses a triangular truss system to create a stable and efficient structure. The tower uses a triangular truss system that consists of four main columns that converge at the top. The columns are connected by horizontal and diagonal beams that form a series of triangles. The triangles help to distribute the load and resist bending and buckling. The tower also has two platforms that act as braces to stiffen the structure and prevent swaying. - The Ikitsuki Bridge in Japan, which uses a continuous truss system to create a long and elegant span. The bridge is the longest continuous truss bridge in the world, with a main span of 400 m and two side spans of 200 m. The bridge uses a through truss system, where the truss members are positioned above and below the deck. The truss height varies along the span, increasing near the supports and decreasing near the center. This helps to optimize the use of material and reduce the weight of the structure. - The Asia Museum of Modern Art in Taiwan, which uses a V-shaped truss system to create a transparent and dynamic facade. The museum consists of three triangular volumes built on different levels. The facade is made of glass panels supported by V-shaped trusses that span from floor to ceiling. The trusses provide structural stability and aesthetic expression for the building. The trusses also allow natural light to enter the interior spaces and create interesting shadows and reflections. Human Factors in Design
Another factor that influences architectural design is human factors. Human factors are the aspects that relate to the needs, preferences, values, and expectations of the users and stakeholders of a building or a space. Human factors affect the function, comfort, safety, and aesthetics of a building or a space. Architects and designers have to consider human factors in their design solutions to create buildings and spaces that are user-friendly, accessible, inclusive, and meaningful.
One of the ways that architects and designers can consider human factors in design is by using psychological concepts. Psychological concepts are the principles and strategies that help architects and designers to understand how people perceive, think, feel, and behave in a building or a space. They include aspects such as perception, cognition, emotion, motivation, etc. Perception is the process of receiving and interpreting sensory information from the environment. Cognition is the process of thinking, reasoning, remembering, learning, etc. Emotion is the process of feeling positive or negative affective states such as happiness, sadness, anger, fear, etc. Motivation is the process of having goals, needs, desires, etc. that drive behavior.
Some examples of psychological concepts in architecture are: - The Guggenheim Museum in New York, which uses perception to create a unique and memorable experience for visitors. The museum has a spiral ramp that leads visitors from the ground floor to the top floor in a continuous flow. The ramp offers changing views of the interior space and the artworks displayed along the walls. The ramp also creates a sense of curiosity and anticipation for visitors as they wonder what is next. The museum also has a skylight that provides natural light and creates a contrast with the dark interior. The skylight also creates a focal point and a sense of orientation for visitors as they follow the spiral ramp. - The Casa da Música in Portugal, which uses cognition to create a stimulating and innovative space for music. The building has a simple geometric shape that is distorted and cut by various openings and windows. The openings and windows create unexpected views and connections between the interior and exterior spaces. The interior spaces are also designed to challenge the conventional notions of music halls and auditoriums. The main auditorium has a flexible layout that can accommodate different types of performances and audiences. The walls are covered with acoustic panels that have different patterns and colors. - The Sydney Opera House in Australia, which uses emotion to create a symbolic and iconic landmark for the city. The building has a series of shell-like structures that resemble sails or waves. The shells are made of precast concrete panels that are covered with white ceramic tiles. The shells create a dramatic contrast with the blue sky and water. The shells also evoke a sense of movement and dynamism that reflect the cultural and artistic activities that take place inside the building. Aesthetic Concepts in Design
Another way that architects and designers can consider human factors in design is by using aesthetic concepts. Aesthetic concepts are the principles and strategies that help architects and designers to create beautiful, pleasing, and expressive buildings and spaces. They include aspects such as form, color, texture, light, etc. Form is the shape or configuration of an element